May 29, 1942: At Radziwillow, Ukraine, the Germans rounded up three thousand Jews with the intention of slaughtering them. Asher Czerkaski led the resistance against the Germans. While 1500 were killed another 1,500 found temporary safety in the forests.
Radziwiłłów is a small city in the Rivne Oblast province of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Radyvyliv Raion district, and is located south-west of the oblast capital, Rivne, near European route E40. The nearest larger cities are Dubno, and Brody. In Soviet times, from 1939 to 1992, the city was known as Chervonoarmiysk. The current estimated population is 10,311 (as of 2001).
In the 14th century, together with whole Volhynia, Radzillow was annexed by the Grand Ducy of Lithuania. Following the 1569 Union of Lublin, the town was transferred to the Kingdom of Poland, where it remained for over 200 years. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, Radziwllow, as it was called, became part of the Russian Empire.
Its residents were Jewish (50%), Ukrainian (31%), and Polish (17%). During the Volhynian Genocide, ethnic Poles from villages in the area fled to the town, to escape Ukrainian nationalists. Almost all those who survived the slaughter left Radzillow, and settled in the Peoples Republic of Poland’s Recovered Territories.
In the late 1800s, the Jewish population reached 4,000. Between World War I and the civil war between Ukrainian nationalists and Bolsheviks, the Jewish population declined.
Shown here is a postcard, estimated to be printed in the early 20th century, picturing the entry gate to the Castle of the Princes in Radzillow.